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Quimper April 28-29-30, 1997

Version en Français

Please note: the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference are in English and / or in French. The translation of an abstract is normally under the responsibility of the author(s). The titles have been translated by the conference secretariat, except when authors have given both a French and an English version of their abstract.

FIRST SESSION: fisheries management, regulation of access to the resources and conflicts of use

Keynote speech
Title: Alternatives in fisheries management
Author: Parzival Copes, Emeritus Professor of Economics
Institution: Department of Economics and Institute of Fisheries Analysis, Simon Fraser University (Canada)
Address: Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6


This paper is concerned with management systems for fisheries in industrially advanced countries, where the need for such systems is apparent and where the financial, administrative and scientific capacity to operate them is evident. The focus of the discussion will be on an evaluation of two prototype management systems, which appear now to be the most widely considered alternatives : (1) output-focused individual transferable quotas (ITQ) regimes, and (2) input- focused limited entry licensed (LEL) regimes with buy-out of excess capacity. In both cases the efficiency of these systems will be explored, considering also variations in the systems along with supplementary management regulations. The systems will be compared with reference to the achievement of commonly accepted policy objectives in the areas of conservation, efficiency, and distributional equity, noting in particular the extent to which they alleviate old externalities and create new ones. The discussion will use a priori reasoning, illustrated by examples drawn from recent fisheries experience. The paper also comments on the potential uses, as well as the difficulties in applying quotas at community and country levels.

With respects to the ITQ regime, the paper concludes that, relative to both open access and LEL regimes, it offers basic advantages in terms of capacity rationalization and individual vessel harvesting efficiency, as well as possible advantages in terms of operational safety and product quality. However, the regulatory requirements of the system and the behaviour it induces in fishery participants tend to introduce a variety of external diseconomies, including highgrading, price dumping, quota busting, quota ratcheting, data fouling, and others. These, together with the inflexibilities of annually or seasonally predetermined total allowable catches (TACs) and near- irreversibility of the system, may often have seriously adverse consequences for conservation and resulting stock productivity.

LEL regimes tend to suffer from negative externalities associated with the "race for fish" and "input stuffing", that lead to reduced harvesting efficiency. However, relative to ITQ regimes, they exhibit fewer behavioural incentives to discard and / or misreport catches, and thus offer better prospects for accurate stocks data. They also have enough flexibility to be accommodated to conservation-sensitive real-time TAC management, with swift action using time and area closures to adjust stock impacts. Consequently, they tend to be more compatible with risk-adverse management appropriate to the precautionary approach. Thus, they offer generally better prospects for long-run stock productivity.

Variations on ITQ and LEL regimes may be operated with or without transferable access rights. Transferability has been associated with distributional (including intergenerational) inequities, and sometimes also with geographical concentration of rights that threatens the viability of smaller coastal communities. Transferability, however, is essential for the achievement of full rationalization benefits that ITQ regimes are able to provide. In the case of LEL regimes, on the other hand, non-transferability may be an advantage, not only in respect of distributional equity, but also because it may assist in the capacity rationalization process for small-boat fisheries.

The author concludes that choosing a management regime for a fishery should be done in relation to the specifics of the fishery concerned and the policy objectives that have been selected. In general terms, the author considers that the advantages of ITQ regimes have been overstated and that insufficient foresight has been exercised in anticipating their hidden faults. The best opportunities for successful application of ITQ and related regimes will occur in fisheries with relatively stable and robust stocks, narrow marketing channels, small numbers of participants, and absence of equity considerations. In the author's view, LEL regimes are more adaptable to a variety of fisheries circumstances. Their possibilities have been too readily dismissed, without sufficient effort to correct mistakes in earlier applications.

As a general approach, it is suggested that the need now is for management regimes that are custom-made for particular fisheries and that are circumstance-specific rather than system- specific.

Paper number 1.1
Title: Scenario analysis : Exploring the future of fisheries
Authors: Pavel Salz, Erik Buisman
Institution: LEI-DLO (The Netherlands)
Address: Burgmeester Patijnlan 19. PO Box 29703. NL-2502 LS The Hague. The Netherlands


In order to make rational decisions about policy, research strategies and investments in the present, it is necessary to have some idea about possible developments and problems in the future. Although the future is principally unknown, it is not impossible to explore future possibilities in a systematic way. One technique to accomplish this is scenario analysis.

The first part of this paper will give into scenario analysis as a way to generate and evaluate future policy options and to identify future research needs. After a brief discussion of the objectives of scenario-analysis and the results that may be expected from it, the technique of scenario building will be described. Specific attention will be payed to the role of present uncertainties and trends.

In the second part, a scenario study on the future of the North Sea fisheries will be presented. In this study three scenarios were developed with different levels of consumer preferences for sustainable resource use. One of these scenarios will be elaborated and analysed. The main ingredients of this scenario are the introduction of the ITQs on a European scale and a development of consumer preferences toward sustainably produced food.

Finally conclusions will be drawn on the possibilities of the technique of scenario analysis for identifying policy options and research priorities in the field of fisheries.

Paper number 1.2
Title: The economic case for charging for licenses and quotas
Author: Tom Sanderson
Institution: MAFF (UK)
Address: Room 519. 3-8 Whitehall Place (West). London SW1A 2HH, United Kingdom


Regulating access to sea fisheries, normally through some sort of restrictive licensing system, is a key step in avoiding over-exploitation of the resource. Where licenses or quotas are tradable, they have become valuable assets, their value reflecting the discounted expected future stream of profits from fishing. under many fisheries management regimes, these license / quotas are issued free of charge. This contrasts with many other sectors where for example, charges are made for pharmaceutical licenses, TV and vehicle licenses, etc. The Paper sets out the economic case for charging for fishing licenses or quotas ; and briefly considers some practical problems and lessons from selected fisheries around the world, before making some concluding remarks.

The Paper reflects the personal views of the author.

Paper number 1.3
Title: Does co-management resolve all our fisheries problems?
Author: Pierre Failler Institution: University of Québec at Rimouski (Canada)
Address: UQAR. Département Economie et Gestion. 300, allée des Ursulines. Rimouski G5L 3A1. Québec. Canada


Co-management of different types (community based management, local management, subsidiarity, partnership, etc.) is increasingly under discussion and applied around the world. For example, the new Federal Canadian fishery policy is based on the partnership principle.

This Paper will present some issues concerning co-management by making a synthesis of the three conference days which were held at the University of Québec at Rimouski and at the University McGill (Canada) in 1995 and 1996.

Paper number 1.4
Title: Mediterranean and Atlantic fisheries management compared
Author: Jan Willem de Wilde
Institution: LEI-DLO (The Netherlands)
Address: Burgmeester Patijnlan 19. PO Box 29703. NL-2502 LS The Hague. The Netherlands


In a study commissioned by the European Commission, a comparison has been made of fisheries management in the Mediterranean and in the Atlantic. The study concentrates on four major elements of fishery management:

  • Stock conservation
  • Structural policy
  • Technical measures
  • Institutions and user participation

The main characteristics of these fields of management of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean fisheries are briefly described and subsequently compared. Conclusions are drawn on the implications for a mediterranean CFP.

Paper number 1.5 The abstract is available in French only
Title: Conflicts of access to the fishery resources in the Normand-Breton Gulf
Authors: Jean-Luc Prat, Denis Bailly
Institution: CEDEM, University of Western Brittany (France)
Address: UBO - CEDEM. 12, rue de Kergoat. BP 816. 29285 Brest cedex. France
Paper number 1.6
Title: Midwater trawling within the 12 nautical miles area : a recent conflict in the south of the Glenan Islands (PhD thesis in progress)
Author: Philippe Le Rhun
Institution: Géolittomer-Brest, UMR 6554 CNRS, University of Western Brittany (France)
Address: UBO - Géolittomer. BP 817. 29285 Brest Cedex. France


Perfected by the Danish about 1955, the development of the pelagic trawl in France began in the late 50'. As long as it was limited to the English Channel and the North Sea fishing areas, its slow evolution has not created any particular problem. Yet, its sudden introduction on the Atlantic coast (late 70') has overturned the fishing fleet habits, especially those using bottom set gear (nets, pots, longlines) largely used in Brittany. This sudden introduction has created violent areas conflicts (especially in Quiberon Bay) for the sharing of inshore fishing areas. These repeated incidents, in Audierne Bay, around the Glenan Islands, or Yeu Island, ended in the setting of a juridical regulation of the use of the pelagic trawl in French waters (12 nautical miles).

In early 1997, the twentieth birthday of the first law on pelagic trawl has been "celebrated" in the south of the Glenan Islands by hard conflicts between pelagic trawlers and fishing fleets using bottom-set gear, after the loss of many of such gear in areas forbidden to pelagic trawling or G.O.V. (high opening trawl). In fact, the present law is completely ineffective. The question is : how did we come to this situation?

The cartographic translation of the laws regulating pelagic trawling shows the incoherence in the distribution of areas where this activity is authorized or forbidden, because these areas were successively created as a solution to the repeated incidents on fishing areas, without any global reflexion on the management of this gear. Moreover, the high efficiency of the pelagic trawl and derived gear (hybrid G.O.V, Naberan trawl) causes a serious biologic problem. What is its fishing effort and impact on an overexploited coastal biomass ? A clear answer should be rapidly given to this question, because those gears are more and more contested among the fishing community, especially now that a good administration of French waters is requested for the "year 2002". Thus, a geographical approach is necessary, because the study of actually exploited fishing areas and of legally authorized areas will allow to determine the danger zones. Thanks to this study, a new spatial approach may be considered. To allow a practical application, the newly drawn up maps will be integrated in a G.I.S (Geographical Information System) and shall be distributed to the fishermen by Turbo 2000 and MaxSea (softwares used by most of the professionals). This a new approach in the inshore fishing management.

Paper number 1.7
Title: Commercial exploitation of artificial reefs : economic opportunities and management imperatives ; the application of property rights
Authors: David Whitmarsh, Helen Pickering
Institution: CEMARE, University of Portsmouth (UK)
Address: Locksway Road. Portsmouth PO48JF. United Kingdom


Relatively little is known about the economic effects of artificial reefs, and this lack of knowledge imposes a constraint on the fisheries planning process. In this Paper we develop a simple bioeconomic model to explore the implications of creating a commercial reef-based fishery, highlighting the problems that can rise if the reef remains unregulated. We then go on to discuss the range of management techniques that can be used to mitigate those problems and to ensure the potential economic benefits of artificial reefs are appropriated. particular attention is paid to property rights and the legal basis for their establishment and enforcement.

Paper number 1.8
Title: Comanagement and the dynamics of the fisheries : some issues
Author: Claude Rioux
Institution: University of Québec at Rimouski (Canada)
Address: UQAR. Département Economie et Gestion. 300, allée des Ursulines. Rimouski G5L 3A1. Québec. Canada


The main purpose of this Paper is to try to give a more precise definition of the comanagement of marine fisheries, using the "classical" theory of fisheries economics as the starting point. Three other objectives are : to explicit the economic meaning of comanagement, to identify the possibilities and the limits of comanagement, and to suggest some new avenues of research that can help to understand better the dynamics of fishing activity.

Using the existing literature, the author will suggest a definition of comanagement and the link between the institutional design and the regulation of the resource. The Paper will focus on the origin of an institution and the results of the of the decisions on externalities and free entry.

The first part presents briefly the problem of the resource management by the market forces alone and the results of this type of management on the dynamics of fisheries. The second part will discuss the institutional evolution implied by some forms of comanagement. The conditions that can explain the emerging and the surviving of comanagement are examined in the third part. In the fourth part, some implications of comanagement are evoked. Some perspectives for new research are suggested in the fifth part.

Since the managing institution has also its own dynamics that is more or less closely related to fisheries dynamics, it seems that we need a better understanding of the economic and social forces that affect the behavior of fishermen, and also more empirical works on the rationality of the institutions (how are determined the global level of utilization of a resource and the allocation of the resource between the users, especially in the case of comanagement).

Paper number 1.9
Title: On the economics of natural resources : the management of fishery resources (PhD thesis in progress)
Author: Susana Cabrera Yeto
Institution: University of Malaga (Spain)
Address: Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales. C/el Ejido s/n. 29071 Malaga. Spain


The main objective of the thesis is to quantify, in a bargaining model, the potential welfare benefits for vessels and countries that compete for a common pool if they coordinate their actions in order to obtain an efficient fishing policy. The level of total captures must guarantee the attainment of an cological equilibrium. Furthermore, we want to study the effect that the bargaining power of each country has on the final share of total captures of his national fleet. To conclude, we want to apply the analytical results obtain to real cases of different countries with fleets fishing in the same pool.

Paper number 1.10
Title: Economic evaluation of the demersal Spanish trawl fishery in the Gulf of Lion
Author: Ramon Franquesa
Institution: GEM, University of Barcelona (Spain)
Address: Gran de Gracia, 229 E.D. 08012 Barcelona. Spain


The demersal trawl is the most important gear in economic terms in the Spanish Mediterranean. Within the gear diversity which characterizes the area, the demersal trawl is one of the most conflictive. The management instruments are designed to try to limit in some cases its expansion, basically through the regulation of fishing licenses.

In the Paper we examine the accounts of this fleet, to understand what are the key aspects of the economic performance of this gear. The main focus of the Paper is to study the possibilities of economic management versus administrative management. The evaluation shows that measures such as the changes in the fuel prices, for example, are more effective than the prohibition to surpass some set limits in horse power or in GRT.

The Paper finishes with a description of the economic management instruments which can be used to balance out the distribution between gears, and between different segments in the trawl gear, as a complement of the administrative instruments.

Paper number 1.11
Title: Measuring the economic results of small-scale fisheries : the case of French inshore fishing in the western part of the English Channel
Authors: Jean Boncoeur*, Denis Bailly*, Pascal Le Floch**
Institution: * CEDEM, University of Western Brittany (France). ** Fisheries Science Laboratory, ENSAR (France)
Address: *12, rue de Kergoat. BP 816. 29285 Brest cedex. France


A reasonable knowledge of the economic performance of the fishing vessels is a key to a sound management of the fisheries, since it governs the understanding of their endogenous dynamics, and the possibility of taking efficient and fair management decisions.

But the measurement process raises two kinds of problems : a statistical one and a conceptual one. The statistical problem is due to the frequently poor quality of official data about landings and prices, and to the questionable reliability of data coming from accounting centres. The conceptual problem is twofold. First, in some cases, standard accounting definitions may be unsuited to the economic reality of the fishing enterprises investigated. Second, the existence of strong externalities (stemming from various causes, among which discarding) creates a gap between individual private and social costs, and thus distorts the social significance of individual private performance.

This Paper presents and discusses some of the results of an economic sample survey of the French inshore fishing activities in the western part of the English Channel, realized in 1996 with the financial support of the French Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Brittany Region and IFREMER (Programme AMURE). The management of these activities is complicated by some patterns, such as their multi-species and multi-gear character, the high number of landing places and the variety of the commercial channels which they use (to say nothing of the fact that different State authorities cohabit in the Normand-Breton gulf).

The Paper focuses on the measuring of the economic performance realized by different subsets of the fleet under investigation. After presenting the difficulties of this operation, it explains the methods which have been built up in order to overcome some of them, and shows the main results obtained. It also indicates the questions still unsolved, and the direction which is taken to treat them.

Paper number 1.12
Title: An application of the fishing economic model "ECOPES" on the Atlantic hake fishery
Authors: M.Augusto Lopez Martinez, Ana Maria Juarez Davila, Enrique Pescador Canora
Institution: University of Cadiz (Spain)
Address: UCA - Facultad de ciencias del Mar. PO Box 40. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz). Spain


This Paper focuses on the ECOPES model (for further details, see Lopez Martinez, M. Augusto, "ECOPES : a fishing economic model", session Modelling, Paper 2, EAFE VIIIth Conference, Barcelona 1996), proving its ability on predictions of future tendencies in real fisheries, such as the ICES areas VIIIc and IXa of the south hake stock of the Atlantic Ocean, in which a convenient database is available. The use of these data in the model, including catches, prices, existing biomass and distribution of costs, led to a complete description of the present and future state of such fishery. Thus, it has been possible to determine the normal evolution in the fishery involving a situation of non-existing free equilibrium, as well as taking decisions to reach a regulated equilibrium, characterized by maximum sustained profit. Finally, fishing policy suggestions are given to get such equilibrium by the means of catch regulation.

Paper number 1.13
Title: Modelling the UK component of the English Channel fisheries : an application of multi-objective programming
Authors: Sean Pascoe*, Mehrdad Tamiz** Institution: * CEMARE, University of Portsmouth (UK). **Department of Mathematical Studies, University of Portsmouth (UK)
Address: *Locksway Road. Portsmouth PO48JF. United Kingdom


Fisheries management is often characterized by multiple objectives. These objectives often include biological conservation objectives, improved fisheries incomes and maintenance of regional employment.

A criticism of many fisheries modelling approaches has been the focus on single objectives. Economists tend to focus on improving the economic performances of the fishery, and hence develop models with this objective in mind. Conversely, biologists are often concerned with achieving an acceptable stock level, and develop models with this objective in mind.

The development of multi-objective modelling algorithms enable several objectives to be considered simultaneously. In this Paper, a brief review of the multi-objective modelling theory is presented along with a review of previous attempts at developing multi-objective models in fisheries. A multi-objective model of the UK component of the English Channel is also developed, and compared with a single objective version of the model.

Paper number 1.14
Title: Bioeconomic management of red swamp crawfish (Procambarus Clarkii) in the presence of environmental externalities
Authors: Rui Junqueira-Lopes*, Philippe Michel**, Gilles Rotillon***
Institution: *University of Evora (Portugal). **University of Paris I (France). ***University of Paris X (France)
Address: *Departamento de Economia. Largo dos Colegiais, no2. 7000 Evora. Portugal


Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus Clarkii) is a valuable renewable resource which creates significant negative externalities in its environment. Crayfish can cause severe crop damage by burrowing in fields and irrigation systems to spread. These crayfish are resistant to normal dosages of pesticides which are harmful to fish and birds, can endure months of dryness, and live in a low oxygen environment. This Paper presents a simple bioeconomic model for optimal use of the red swamp crayfish accounting for its value in consumption, adapting Plourde's (1970) model to include the negative externalities.

Paper number 1.15
Title: Individual quotas as a management tool and systemic modelling : an application to the French albacore fishery (PhD Thesis in progress)
Author: Olivier Guyader
Institution: OIKOS and University of Rennes I, guest-researcher at CEDEM (France)
Address: UBO - CEDEM. 12 rue de Kergoat. BP 816. 29285 Brest cedex. France


This Paper deals with the implementation of individual (transferable) quotas in fishing activities. It develops a part of a larger work (PhD thesis) which tries to evaluate the relative advantage of rights based management tools.

We rapidly review the basic insights of quotas allocations from the point of view of efficiency and equity, and evaluate the potential difficulties of their application to the French albacore fishery. Then, we take care of this to build a simple model of fishermen behaviour within I.Q and I.T.Q systems. We consider the problems of imperfect enforcement and transaction costs, stocks effects and fleet adjustments. The model gives also the opportunity to modify quotas allocations and to put limits on rights concentration. It is converted into a systemic software language in order to simulate management options. Finally, the outputs of simulations are presented and the question of choice between quota and input regulation is discussed.

Paper number 1.16
Title: Fisher behaviour : exploring the validity of the profit maximizing assumption
Authors: Catherine Robinson, Sean Pascoe
Institution: CEMARE, University of Portsmouth (UK)
Address: Locksway Road. Portsmouth PO48JF. United Kingdom


The assumption of profit maximizing behaviour underpins most bioeconomic models of fisheries. However, the results from a number of recent surveys of fishers attitudes have suggest that fishers are not generally profit maximizers. Researchers undertaking these surveys asked fishers directly for their key motivation. Few fishers admit to trying to maximizing profits explicitly. This unwillingness to admit profit maximizing behaviour has been interpreted as evidence that fishers do not operate in a profit maximizing manner.

In this Paper, evidence is presented that indicates fishers do operate in a profit maximising manner. A survey of fishers attitude was derived that did not ask for fisher motivation directly, but asked what would motivate them to change their behaviour. A number of fishers along the south coast of England were interviewed. The results of this survey are compared with the results of other surveys of UK and Irish fishers.

Paper 1.17
Title: A method of indicating the comparative dispersion of national fleet revenue in mixed fisheries
Authors: Philip Bertram*, Philip Rodgers**
Institution: * Napier University (UK). ** SFIA, Edinburgh (UK)
Address: Sea Fish Industry Authority. 18, Logie Mill, Logie Green Road, Edinburgh EH7 4HG UK


The views expressed in this Paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions. The Sea Fish Industry Authority does not adopt a policy on fisheries management matters.

The Lorenz Curve and the related statistic, the Gini Coefficient are used to provide a measure of the dispersion of the national fleet revenue. Despite some weaknesses the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient provide a basic conceptual framework for indicating the dispersion of national fleet revenue among species. For comparative purposes, the more difficult question is Addressed of how to provide a common basis for calculating a statistic analogous to the Gini Coefficient.

The Paper analyses recent data from Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom in terms of value of landings per species in the period of a year in the country of origin. Data from species by value from each country is analysed and presented graphically. A method of adjusting the Gini Coefficient to allow for reliance on differing numbers of species is considered.

Keywords : Lorenz, Gini, Fishery Economics.


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