Title: International trade in tuna commodities: the main players
Author: Hussain Rasheed Hassan
Institution: CEMARE, University of Portsmouth (UK)
Address: Locksway Road. Portsmouth PO48JF. United Kingdom
Six nations (Japan, USA, France,
Spain, Italy and Germany) consume about 90% of the world landings of tuna.
Although Japan, Spain, USA and France catch most of the tuna they consume,
these countries also rank highest among the top tuna exporters and importers.
However there is evidence that this situation is changing with regard to
products and consumers tastes. There is clear shift away from canned tuna
to fresh / fresh-frozen tuna in North and South America and some parts of
This paper assesses the major
tuna trade flows during the period of 1988 to 1995, in terms of volume and
economic value, to determine the nature of the change in the tuna market.
Using various trade indices, the paper investigates the evolution of tuna
commodity trade performance and the comparative advantage of the dominant
countries over the same period.
number 2.2 The abstract is available
in French only
Title: Measuring and characterizing intra-European trade of seafood
Author: Pascal Bernard
Institution: LEN-CORRAIL, University of Nantes (France)
Address: Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion. 110
Bd Michelet. BP 52231. 44322 Nantes cedex 03. France
Title: The effectiveness of regional trade measures in international
commodity markets: the case of farmed atlantic salmon
Author: Patty Clay
Institution: Scottish Agricultural College, Agricultural and Rural
Economics Department (UK)
Address: 581 King Street, Aberdeen AB9 1UD. United Kingdom
The world market supply of farmed
Atlantic salmon has grown at an average annual rate of 26% over the period
from 1987 to 1995. This substantial and sustained growth in the supply of
salmon on the world market has resulted in numerous cases of major price
reductions in both the European (1990, 1991 and 1994) and the United States
(1988 and 1994). The general reaction from the domestic industries in each
instance of a price collapse in the home market has been to instigate an
investigation into "unfair" trade practices against the major
The main objective for these
complaints is to introduce regional trade measures to improve conditions
for domestic farmers, either through the removal of competition in order
to enable a price increase or to safeguard employment in the industry. It
is likely however that regional trade measures will not produce the desired
results of higher prices or higher production if the commodity in question
is traded on an integrated world market.
Import prices for fresh salmon
in the United States, Japan and the European Union were tested for cointegration
using both the Engel-Granger and the Johansen test procedure. The results
indicate a global market for fresh salmon implying that regional trade measures
aimed at excluding one player from a regional market will not be effective
in producing the desired results. To investigate if this is the case, the
import price paths and the changes in production and employment in the US
market were analysed.
Preliminary evidence indicates
that the exclusion of Norwegian producers from the market was not sufficient
to raise the price of fresh salmon above the level implied by world markets.
In addition, the trade measures did not seem to have led to any positive
development in U.S domestic production. The main effect appears to have
been a shift in market shares rather than any improvement in the conditions
of the domestic producers.
Title: Artisanal fishing in the ACP countries: its possible economic
dimension within the framework of North-South relations
Author: Miguel S. Peña
Institution: Independent consultant (Spain)
Address: C/ San Pablo 24. 28230 Las Rozas. Madrid, Spain
The disturbing state of fish
resources in European Union waters, as well as general acceptance of the
200 miles Exclusive Economic Zones (the EEZs), have converted the EU countries
into net importers of marine products.
Technological advances and the
increased use of air transport have led to a large part of these imports
being made up of fresh fish, and to a consequent reduction in the traditional
imports of frozen fish.
Since there is a possibility
(and indeed it is already happening) that a large percentage of this fresh
fish imported by the EU countries comes from catches by the artisanal fleet,
we shall attempt in this paper to examine the opportunities which exist
for artisanal fishermen from the ACP countries to participate in, and benefit
from, these trade exchanges.
Title: Fish processing in The Netherlands: limitations to growth
Author: Marius O. van Wijk
Institution: LEI-DLO (The Netherlands)
Address: Burgemeester Patijnlan 19. PO Box 29703. NL-2502 LS The
Hague. The Netherlands
A detailed survey in the Dutch
fish processing industry was conduced by LEI-DLO in 1996. The study was
co-financed by the ministry of Agriculture and the Dutch Fishery Board.
Objectives of the study were to describe the market structure and market
results of the total Dutch fish processing industry. Another study, aimed
specifically at the flatfish industry in The Netherlands, was conducted
by A.T. Kearney with the cooperation of LEI-DLO. This survey was called
for mainly because of the possible negative consequences of decreases of
the Dutch flatfish TAC's in 1996.
There are about 400 specialized
fish processing and wholesale companies in The Netherlands, employing 6500
people. The total value of fish output of these companies is estimated at
3.8 bn. ECU in 1995. Important sectors such as flatfish and shellfish processing
have been struggling for several years with stagnating sales figures due
to catch reductions in the North Sea. There are growth opportunities in
wholesale distribution and importing. The domestic market for fish products
is valued around 400 million ECU at wholesale level.
Flatfish processing is the biggest
sector of the Dutch fish processing industry, with about 40 concerns and
a turnover of around 450 million ECU. The shellfish industry is relatively
concentrated with the top four firms accounting for nearly 50% of the sales.
The paper discusses the following
- description of methodology
- summary of the results
- SWOT-analysis of the sector
- upstream / downstream analysis
of the sector.
Title: Recent evolutions in the fisheries chain in France
Authors: Catherine Mariojouls, Klervi de Lesquen
Institution: INA Paris-Grignon, CEREOPA (France)
Address: 16, rue Claude Bernard. 75231 Paris cedex 05. France
We shall present here the results
of an investigation realized in 1996 for the FIOM, in order to answer the
following question: how did the economic operators adapt themselves in the
recent years to the new economical conditions, consequences of an increasing
internationalization of the markets, a modernization of the distribution
channels,, and an overexploitation of the resources ? We interviewed, in
the main harbours of the French coast, 126 operators of the fishery chain,
representing the different functions.
For the fishing activity, the
situations and evolutions vary broadly according to the local specificities.
One main common evolution is the worsening of the working conditions for
the fishermen, as a result of different adaptations to counterbalance the
decrease of prices. The fishbuyer sector shows important changes in its
structure and the ways of working, because of the new EU sanitary regulation,
and the increasing importance of supermarkets in the fresh fish distribution.
The money devaluations in the neighbouring countries have caused, to a certain
extent, some movements in the focused markets, from the export to the domestic
market. The processing industry, mainly supplied by importations, is showing
a new interest for French production. The " crisis" is not finished,
as resource and prices are still at a low level in numerous cases, and the
efficiency of collective organizations is being questioned.
Title: Total quality of seafood products: the quality of rainbow
trout fillets according to wholesalers and retailers
Authors: A. Honkanen, P. Mickwicz, M. Juvankovski, J. Setälä
Institution: Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (Finland)
Address: Merimiehenkatu 36 D. P.O Box 202. FIN - 00151. Helsinki.
Fish and other seafood products
are easily spoilt due to rapid microbiological, biological and enzymatic
processes. The quality of fresh fish is affected by, for example, the catch
method, how the fish is handled, the species and the time of the year. These
are, however, only some parts of the total quality of fish. In addition,
the concept of total quality includes such elements as services and images.
Service can include elements such as the reliability of the deliveries and
the product range. Image, on the other hand, includes among other things
the brand, the company image and packaging.
The aim of this study was to
find the main components of the total quality of rainbow trout fillets according
to wholesalers and retailers. The similarities and differences of the quality
perceptions by the two groups were also examined. In order to make these
analyses a hierarchic model of the total quality of a rainbow trout fillet
was created. The model consists of seven elements at the main level and
five sublevels. Altogether the model has 84 elements. Computer-based interviews
were carried out with 18 wholesalers and 20 retailers. The interviewees
attached weights to each element of the model according to the importance
they gave it compared to the other elements at the level.
The average importance of the
elements at the primary level varied between 7.6 and 28.5 percent. Freshness
was clearly seen as the most important criteria by both wholesalers and
retailers. The wholesalers saw safety as the least important element of
the total quality at the primary level. Raw material (size, sex, fat content,
etc.) and service were given a statistically significant higher weight by
the wholesalers than by the retailers. According to the wholesalers the
cultivation environment, sex/maturity and chilling after slaughtering were
the most important last level elements. Chilling after slaughtering, an
unbroken temperature chain and lightness were the three most important criteria
number 2.8 The abstract is available
in French only
Title: Strategies of the fishing industry in the Andaluz Mediterranean
Sea: special reference to the strategies of marketing
Author: Antonio Ruiz Molina
Institution: University of Malaga, Department of Economics and Business
Address: Facultad de Ciencias Economicas. C/ El Ejido s/n. 29071 Malaga.
Title: Norwegian household's consumption of salmon and other fish
Authors: Ola Flaaten, Frode Skjolde
Institution: The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University
of Tromsø (Norway)
Address: 9037 Tromsø. Norway
Information on Norwegian household's
consumption expenditure and quantities of food, and other goods and services,
are collected each year by Statistics Norway. This paper explores the data
on fish consumption 1977-94, to see if there has been noticeable changes
in per capita consumption of major fish products in this period. particular
emphasis is put on the salmon consumption. Further, for the periods 1977-79
and 1992-94, the fish consumptions are compared to each other for some sociodemographic
groups. The average total fish consumption per capita did not increase from
1977 to 1994, however, the salmon consumption increased strongly.
number 2. 10
Title: Finnish consumers fish consumption behaviours
Authors: Asmo Honkanen, Jari Setälä, Per Mickwicz
Institution: Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (Finland)
Address: Merimiehenkatu 36 D. P.O Box 202. FIN - 00151. Helsinki.
Finnish consumers annually use
about 16 kg fish per person, measured as fillets. Half of total consumption
is domestic fish, mainly Baltic herring and rainbow trout. Of the imported
fish, most are canned or frozen products.
The objectives of this research
was to analyse fish purchasing behaviour and attitudes toward fish, and
thereby increase the knowledge base regarding the structure of the Finnish
fish market. This study was started in 1992 and the latest data concerns
years 1996 and the beginning of 1997. The sample of consumers has varied
from 2000 to 2400. Consumers were randomly selected and the data was collected
by a phone interview arranged by the Central Statistical Office of Finland.
The interview comprised questions regarding fish consumption habits and
attitudes towards, for instance, fish quality and price.
In 1992 almost all households
consumed fish in some form. The most important purchasing places were local
shops and supermarkets. This is due to the fact that three quarters of households
usually bought fish at the same store where they bought their other food
supplies. More than half of the consumers interviewed could not tell the
difference between domestic and imported fish, although the information
that the fish is domestic increases their willingness to buy. Finnish consumers
attitudes towards fish are generally quite positive. The consumers favour
processed products to a larger extent than earlier.
Title: The price formation of hake at Pasajes auction
Authors: Jean-Pierre Boude*, Jose Perez Agundez*, Abdelhak Nassiri**
Institution: *Fisheries Science Laboratory, ENSAR (France). **ICI,
University of Western Brittany (France)
Address: *65 rue de Saint-Brieuc. 35042 Rennes cedex. France
This paper presents the price
formation of hake in the village of Pasajes. Pasajes is a port located in
Spain,on the Atlantic shore, at about 15 kms from the Spanish-French boundary.
Hake is the most important fish distinguished in the auction of this port.
There are between fifty and sixty different kinds of hake, according to
their quality and size.
The paper aims at obtaining answers
concerning the variables which influence the price formation and the price
variability depending on the spatial and temporary effects. Econometric
estimations are used for that purpose, mainly by a simple regression, data
panel regressions and a SUR (Seemingly Unrelate Regression) model.
Title: Price flexibility for quota and non-quota species in the
UK: a cointegration systems approach
Authors: Shabbar Jaffry*, Sean Pascoe**, Catherine Robinson**
Institution: *Department of Economics, University of Portsmouth (UK).
**CEMARE, University of Portsmouth (UK)
Address: **Locksway Road. Portsmouth PO48JF. United Kingdom
Considerable research has been
undertaken in the past on price formation of key species in the UK. However,
little attention has been paid to the less significant species, which generally
are non-quota species. For many small-scale fishers, non-quota species form
the basis of their income.
In this paper, the own and cross-price
flexibilities for a range of species important to the english Channel fisheries
are estimated. A number of groups of species including both quota and non-
quota species were determined using cluster analysis. System of equation
models were developed for each group using a cointegration systems approach.
Long run equilibrium and short run price flexibilities were determined.
Title: Storage and viability of a fishery with resource and market
Authors: C. Béné*, L. Doyen**
Institution: *University of Paris VI (France). **University of Paris
Address: *Station zoologique. BP 06230 Villefranche. France
In this study we analyse the
role of storage regulation in a fishery's production process when the resource
exploited and the market to which the production is exported are characterized
by seasonal dephased oscillations. For this purpose we built up a dynamic
model drawn from the French Guyana shrimp fishery example. The underlying
objective of the model is not the maximization of a given criterion (as
would be in the optimal control approach), but merely the maintenance of
the fishery's economical viability. The fundamental principle is here to
try to preserve as many as possible viable control options. The conditions
to achieve and maintain this viability are captured in a certain number
of constraints. The analysis points out periods and situations within the
season where fishermen must anticipate the evolution of their storage to
avoid violating those viability constraints. The study also indicates how
the fishery's viability can be ensured, even if the exploitation costs exceed
the commercial value of the landings for a finite part of the year. However,
when the oscillations of the resource and / or the market are too large,
the fishery may be not viable any longer, and it appears that the crisis
cannot be removed by investing in larger storage capacities.