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Quimper April 28-29-30, 1997

Version en Français

Please note : the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference are in English and / or in French. The translation of an abstract is normally under the responsibility of the author(s). The titles have been translated by the conference secretariat, except when authors have given both a French and an English version of their abstract.

THIRD SESSION: aquaculture and fishing activities in the context of coastal management

Keynote speech
Title: Evaluating fishing and aquaculture in the context of integrated coastal management in Western North America
Author: Professor David Fluharty
Institution: School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington at Seattle (USA)
Address: 3707 Brooklyn Avenue, N.E Seattle, Washington. 98105 USA


Vastly contrasting approaches are being taken by the States of Alaska and Washington (USA) and the Province of British Columbia (Canada) in efforts to manage coastal fisheries and aquaculture. Recent experience with implementation of Individual Fishing Quotas and Vessel Bycatch Quotas in sablefish and halibut fisheries exposes considerable disagreement on approach and purpose but significant rationalization of the fisheries. At the same time these policies are increasingly seen to conflict with the emerging trend toward community-based management. Salmon fisheries, long subject to license limitation, are in serious trouble from massive fluctuations (both extremely highs and lows) in salmon abundance and price. Integrating wild salmon policies and policies for cultured salmon challenges existing institutions. Prospects for timely resolution of these conflicts are slim, however, the interim period of debate over directions presents unprecedented opportunities for observation and analysis.

Paper number 3.1
Title: Regional employment impact of fish resource utilization from the Barents Sea
Authors: Hermann Bardarsson, Knut Heen
Institution: The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø (Norway)
Address: 9037 Tromsø. Norway


The fleet participating in the cod fisheries in Norway consists of a number of different types of vessels which vary in size, gears and treatment / processing of the fish. The catches are inputs in different landbased fish processing sectors. The type of vessels catching the fish is of importance to what kind of final product that is made by the fish processing industries. As supply of raw fish is the limiting factor for the level of activity, the aim of this study is firstly to estimate the impact of one unit of catch for the various vessel groups in the region of North Norway. Secondly, a static optimization model is used to find the composition of vessel groups which maximize the employment impact.

On the basis of the input-output table for North Norway, 1987, multipliers are calculated for various fleet - fish processing combinations in the cod fisheries. These multipliers are then used to calculate the employment impact of different delivering patterns from the fleet to the fish processing industry. The multipliers were put into a linear programming model which ensures that the delivery of fish by fleet groups do not exceed certain constraints. The constraints refer both to the fleet groups and to the processing sectors as receivers of the fish. Optimization of the model demonstrates which composition of vessel groups creates the largest impact in North Norway.

Given the same catches as in 1992, the optimal solution of the model shows that a change in vessel groups participating in cod fishing and a change in the delivery pattern to fish processing could result in an increase in the employment in the region by 3.122 employees. This is based on a maximum +/- 50% changes in the delivery pattern of 1992. A fleet consisting of small scale vessels would create the largest employment in North Norway.

Paper number 3.2 The abstract is available in French only
Title: South-Brittany facing the changes in the fishing industry
Authors: Nicole Piriou, Jean-René Couliou
Institution: Géolittomer-Brest, UMR 6554 CNRS, University of Western Brittany (France)
Address: UBO - Géolittomer. BP 817. 29285 Brest Cedex. France

Paper number 3.3
Title: The importance of British fishing ports, 1958 - 1993: a preliminary analysis
Authors: Chris Reid, John Slaymaker
Institution: CEMARE, University of Portsmouth (UK)
Address: Locksway Road. Portsmouth PO48JF. United Kingdom


This paper offers a long run perspective on the shifting economic geography of Britain's fishing ports, presenting a fresh evaluation of the changing composition of onshore activity in Britain's fishing industry. Acknowledging the profound institutional factors that have shaped the structural adjustment of the fishing industry since the late-1950s, the paper sets out to examine the principal changes in the importance of UK ports to the present.

Initially, the paper builds upon previous research using standard indicators from industrial economics - such as rank orders and concentration indices - and official data on landings to provide an extended and more comprehensive version of the analysis of port activity. In reviewing this evidence, it is considered that this highly aggregated analysis, while valuable, tends to reinforce an impressionistic interpretation of port significance that emphasizes dramatic changes in the fishing economy, such as the dislocation of the distant water fleet in the 1970s.

In recognition of this shortcoming, the paper examines the contention that the investigation of aggregate "port" activity may not constitute the most appropriate analytical procedure. Accordingly, it develops a more detailed approach to measuring the concentration of port activity that explicitly focuses upon the composition of landings passing through ports. Using data published by MAFF and DAFS in quintennial intervals for the period between 1958 and 1993 to derive similar indicators of port significance, it suggests that it is possible to discern a myriad of less easily discernable but important underlying changes that have cumulatively contributed to the long-run adjustments in port significance. In particular, it focuses attention on those ports that have not experienced dramatic changes un aggregate, but have nonetheless experienced marked changes in the composition of their landings. The paper concludes that the long run changes in the relative importance of Britain's fishing ports are significantly more subtle and complex than has hitherto been supposed.

Paper number 3.4
Title: The economic impact of commercializing recreational fisheries: case study on fishing tourism in the County of Southern Jutland, Denmark
Authors: Eva Roth, Susanne Jensen
Institution: South Jutland University Center (Denmark)
Address: Niels Bohr Vej 9. 6700 Esbjerg. Denmark


Recreational fisheries, i.e sport fisheries with rod and wheel are marketed as off-season activity for foreign tourists by the tourist organization in Denmark. This is possible due to the Danish regulatory system for recreational fisheries, which is presented in this paper. The tourist industry does not actually sell the right to fish, but sells accommodation, meals and other commodities to tourists visiting Denmark.

The tourist industry differs from other service industries as it cannot be delimited from the supply side, but must instead be defined from the demand side. It is so because tourism consumption consists of different goods and services like accommodation, transport, shopping for food, visiting cultural institutions, and other activities.

By using a national input-output model especially developed for analysing tourist demand (1991, Jensen), we have computed the economic impact on employment, balance of payment, income and contribution to payment of indirect taxes of foreign tourists visiting the County of South Jutland with the aim to fish.

The paper discusses the input-output approach when dealing with a restricted natural resource base.

Further are discussed the allocation problems concerning the conflicting use of these resources, as both commercial and recreational interests are involved.

Paper number 3.5
Title: Aquaculture and economic development in Mediterranean islands
Authors: Philippe Paquotte*, Denis Lacroix**
Institution: *IFREMER, Maritime Economics Service (France). **IFREMER, Department of Aquacultural Resources (France)
Address: *155, rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 92138 Issy-les-Moulineaux. France


Due to favourable environmental conditions and political will, marine fish farming has developed recently around the Mediterranean. In 1995, 45 000 tons of marine fish were produced by the Mediterranean countries, mainly seabass and seabream, but also some new species like puntazzo or pagrus. More than the two thirds of the production is realized in cages, in sheltered bays offshore. Onshore intensive farms using raceways account for only 15% of the total production while a similar amount is produced in traditional earth ponds or in valli. The Mediterranean area is characterized by a large number of islands which are extremely diversified from geographical, political or socio-economic points of view. This paper includes also some archipelagos like the Canaries and Madeira which belong to Mediterranean states, though situated in the Atlantic. As a matter of fact, it turns out that almost a quarter of the Mediterranean marine fish farming production comes from these islands, which have proven to offer good conditions for the development of that new activity.

The reasons for which so many enterprises have been established on islands are also very diverse. Taking advantage of good environmental conditions is the most common motivation, since islands are usually less submitted to constraints due to town extension, industry development or intensive agriculture. That is the case of the Greek islands, Sicily and Sardinia in Italy, Carsick in France, The Balearic islands in Spain and the Croatian Islands. In some cases, an other valuable asset may be the temperature pattern which fits much better the fish requirements. That is the case in Corsica in comparison with mainland France, and especially of Canaries and Madeira which have the advantage to be on the flow of the temperate Gulf Stream. Thanks to higher temperature in winter, the growth cycle may be considerably shortened and result in less risk and better capital productivity. Moreover, as far as European Union countries are concerned, incentive policy towards ultra-peripheral or late development regions has made it possible to attribute specific subsidies to islands for aquaculture in the aim of more employment and wealth. When these islands are State- islands, like Malta and Cyprus, or autonomous regions far from their mother country like Madeira or Canaries, economic independence is crucial and may be a strong motivation to develop aquaculture as a factor of food security and self sufficiency. Aquaculture has developed lately in Mediterranean islands because of technical constraints which have been recently removed due to the transfer of northern European offshore technologies to Mediterranean conditions. In small islands where space is a scarce resource, offshore fish farming has proved to be the best way to develop aquaculture and to avoid use conflicts with coastal tourism which is a major activity around the Mediterranean.

Like any other economic activity, aquaculture has to face some specific constraints due to the insular context. Transport to and from the islands is more expensive and less regular, which has a negative impact on the price competitiveness of the insular products. Local markets are often too small to make it possible for the enterprises to develop first at a domestic level and to take advantage of economies of scale. In the case of seabass and seabream, most insular products had to face international competition on export markets from the very beginning, despite their disadvantages in terms of transport costs. Given the new rules of free trade for sea products following the GATT agreement, the same constraint has to be taken into account by islands which, like Madeira and Cyprus, have targeted the local market in priority. One possible answer to that type of constraint could be the promotion of quality products based on the geographical origin, on the quality of environment or on specific production processes. Such an approach is not yet usual because of the lack of objective criteria of differentiation in seabass and seabream farming at the present time, but Mediterranean islands could valorize thus their positive and attractive world- wide image. In this aim, institutional support, cooperation between producers and financial means are absolute prerequisites which may not be eluded.

Anyhow, availability of private investment remains the key issue in some islands, when they are particularly small and remote, like Madeira or the Canaries, or when political troubles may drive off potential investors as in Corsica. In any case, attention has to be paid to the socio-economic context when assessing the opportunity of investment in aquaculture in an island. Taking lessons from different experiences in Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Croatia and Corsica, the key elements for success seem to be the sharing of initiatives and the pooling of financial and political assets, with a preliminary consultation of the coastal population. The future of aquaculture in Mediterranean islands depends on the ability of investors, institutions and entrepreneurs to take advantage of their favourable environmental conditions and of their good image in the realization of coordinated regional development strategies. Networks for information, research and technological transfer may be essential tools to compensate the constraints due to small size and isolation in order to supply the large European seafood market with quality products.

Paper number 3.6
Title: Location of aquacultural activities in the Mediterranean area: the case of seabass farming
Author: Leïla Temri
Institution: GERM, University of Montpellier I (France)
Address: UFR AES. Espace Richter. Avenue de la Mer. BP 9640. 35054 Montpellier Cedex 1. France


The success of an economic activity depends both on the local context and on intrinsic qualities of the projects supporting the activity. It is not always easy to separate the influence of these two kinds of factors because in some instances the activity can be very closely linked to the local environment, especially when it emerges due to local initiatives. So, location of the activity is an important factor to explain performance.

The objective of this paper is to propose a methodological approach for analysing the location of seabass farming in the Mediterranean sea. This approach relies on the methods of analysis of the location of industrial activities. The latter methods are adapted to the specificities of aquaculture activities.

The methods of analysis of the location of industrial activities are usually of two kinds:

  • The first consists of the analysis of the factors of location, which is based on empirical observations and is therefore the result of an inductive approach. It has been developed within Industrial Geography.
  • The second is based on economic theories of activities location. Spatial economy started during the XIXth century, particularly within the German school, of which Von Thünen was a pioneer. It has been developed further in the United States, during the XXth century, with contributions of A. Weber, A. Lösch and many other authors. It is now developed by the French school of regional economy.

More recently, the methods of analysis of industrial location have been expanded towards behavioural analysis, which focuses on the manager behaviour when choosing the location of his activities.

Aquaculture is a traditional activity in the Mediterranean area. First, it was practiced in an extensive way. Now, semi-intensive and intensive techniques are equally used, in raceways, cages, or other supports. Consequently, Mediterranean aquaculture is characterized by a large heterogeneity in the techniques used. A favourable climate, the presence of an important mass of brackish water and the advantages of an open sea constitute physical assets for the development of aquaculture. Mediterranean aquaculture is dominated by conchyliculture, but seabass and seabream breeding shows important progress. Finally, there is also a large heterogeneity in the production structures and thereby in the production and commercial logics of the managers.

Aquaculture success is very dependant on the natural environment. But although favourable conditions are necessary, they are not sufficient to explain differences in the performances of several projects. The analysis of activities location is a means for improving our understanding of the variation in performance between projects.

Paper number 3.7
Title: The value of coastal water productivity: the case of oyster farming in Marennes-Oléron
Authors: Denis Bailly, Caroline Callies
Institution: CEDEM, University of Western Brittany (France)
Address: 12, rue de Kergoat. BP 816. 29285 Brest cedex. France


Shellfish farming is one of the leading productions of the sea product industry in France. Oyster and mussel productions rely on the productivity of the coastal waters that remain a common property resource despite the individual allocation of space. Growing grounds are on the Maritime Public Domain, mainly located in the intertidal zone. Officially this legal status does not allow for any type of market based transferability. Use rights, called "concessions", are individually allocated for 35 years maximum and transferred by administrative decision. All areas do not have the same productivity. This has created for many years the conditions for a black market with highly differentiated prices. Informal adjustments among producer organizations and the administration has permitted this "underground" market allocation of shellfish grounds. A reform introduced in 1983 and re-negotiated in 1987 has offered the possibility to officially record these transactions under the cover of a juridical artifact. The four years of negation have been centred on the objective of shellfish growers to obtain legal recognition of private property attributes to their grounds at sea. Ten years later, a significant volume of data on grounds prices is available. Data on oyster grounds in Marennes-Oléron are used to illustrate the relation between shellfish concession price and productivity. The relation between this value and the resource rent extraction is discussed.


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